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The Jantar Mantar monument in Jaipur, Rajasthan is a collection of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments, built by the Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh, and completed in 1734 CE. It features the world's largest stone sundial, and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Located near City Palace and Hawa Mahal of Jaipur, the monument features masonry, stone and brass instruments that were built using astronomy and instrument design principles of ancient Hindu Sanskrit texts. The instruments allow the observation of astronomical positions with the naked eye. The monument expresses architectural innovations, as well as the coming together of ideas from different religious and social beliefs in 18th century India. The observatory is an example of the Ptolemaic positional astronomy which was shared by many civilizations..
The monument features instruments operating in each of the three main classical celestial coordinate systems: the horizon-zenith local system, the equatorial system and the ecliptic system. The Kapala Yantraprakara is one that works in two systems and allows transformation of the coordinates directly from one system to the other. The monument was damaged in the 19th century. Early restoration work was undertaken under the supervision of Major Arthur Garrett, a keen amateur astronomer, during his appointment as Assistant State Engineer for the Jaipur District.

Structures Inside Jantar Mantar

There are various instruments within the observatory of Jantar Mantar in New Delhi: Samrat Yantra, Jayaprakash, Misra Yantra. The Samrat yantra is a giant triangle which is 70 feet high, 114 feet long and 10 feet thick. It is a sundial meant to measure the exact time of the day within half a second. Jayaprakash Yantra consists of hollowed out hemispheres with some marking on the concave surfaces. An observer can align the position of a star with various markings or a window's age from inside the Ram. The Misra Yantra was designed in order to determine the shortest as well the longest days of a year. It also indicates the exact moment of noon in different cities and locations regardless of the distance from Delhi. There is also a Ram Yantra which represents the two circular buildings to the south of Jai Prakash.


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